Classes of Food [Plus Nigerian Food Rich in Each]

Maintaining a healthy and balanced diet is crucial for overall well-being and vitality. Our bodies require a diverse range of nutrients to function optimally, and these nutrients come from various classes of food.

Classes of Foods

Each class of food serves a specific purpose and contributes to different aspects of our health.

In this article, we will look into the essential classes of food, their benefits, requirements in the body, and Nigerian food rich in each food class.

Classes of Food

1. Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the body’s primary source of energy. They are broken down into glucose, which fuels various bodily functions, including brain activity and muscle contractions.

Complex carbohydrates, found in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, provide sustained energy due to their slower digestion. Simple carbohydrates, like those in sugary foods, provide quick bursts of energy but should be consumed in moderation.

The recommended daily intake of carbohydrates varies based on factors such as age, activity level, and overall health. Roughly 45-65% of total daily calories should come from carbohydrates.

Nigerian Food Rich in Carbohydrates

Nigerian cuisine boasts a rich variety of carbohydrate-rich foods that form the foundation of many meals. Some popular options include:

  • Rice: A staple in Nigerian households, rice is often served with stews, soups, and various protein dishes. Jollof Rice, a flavorful one-pot dish cooked with tomatoes and spices, is a beloved Nigerian classic.
  • Yam: Yam is a versatile tuber that can be boiled, fried, or pounded into a dough-like consistency known as “fufu.” It’s commonly paired with stews and sauces.
  • Plantains: These starchy bananas are a common side dish, often fried or roasted. Plantains can be enjoyed ripe or unripe, offering a sweet flavor, respectively.

2. Proteins

Proteins are the building blocks of the body, crucial for the repair and growth of tissues. They also play a vital role in the production of enzymes, hormones, and immune system components.

Proteins are made up of amino acids, some of which the body can’t produce and must be obtained from the diet.

Daily protein intake varies based on factors like age, activity level, and muscle mass. On average, around 10-35% of total daily calories should come from protein sources.

Nigerian Food Rich in Proteins

Nigerian cuisine incorporates a variety of protein sources, both from animal and plant-based foods:

  • Meat: Beef, goat, chicken, and fish are commonly used in Nigerian dishes. Meat is often used in stews and soups like Egusi Soup, where it’s combined with ground melon seeds and vegetables.
  • Legumes: Nigerian cuisine features an array of legumes like beans, lentils, and cowpeas. These are used to make dishes like Moi Moi (a steamed bean pudding) and Akara (deep-fried bean cakes).

3. Fats

Dietary fats are essential for absorbing fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and providing a concentrated source of energy.

Unsaturated fats, found in foods like nuts, seeds, and olive oil, are considered healthier choices than saturated and trans fats, which are often found in processed and fried foods.

Fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, contributing to overall nutrient utilization. Aim to get 20-35% of total daily calories from healthy fats, with an emphasis on unsaturated fats.

Nigerian Food That Contain Fats

Healthy fats are found in many Nigerian dishes, often in the form of cooking oils and traditional ingredients, such as:

  • Palm Oil: This vibrant red oil is a staple in Nigerian cooking and is used to add flavor and color to soups and stews.
  • Groundnut Oil: Also known as peanut oil, it’s commonly used for frying and cooking various dishes.
  • Coconut: Coconut milk and coconut oil are used in certain Nigerian dishes to enhance flavor and texture.

4. Vitamins

Vitamins are micronutrients that play crucial roles in various bodily functions. They are essential for maintaining healthy skin, eyesight, immune system function, and more.

Vitamins are divided into water-soluble (e.g., vitamin C, B-complex vitamins) and fat-soluble (e.g., vitamins A, D, E, and K) categories.

Vitamin requirements vary by type, but a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can usually meet these needs.

Nigerian Food Rich in Vitamins

Nigerian cuisine is rich in vitamins due to its reliance on vegetables and fruits. For example:

  • Leafy Greens: Vegetables like spinach, Ugu (fluted pumpkin leaves), and bitter leaf are used in soups and stews, providing essential vitamins like vitamins A and C.
  • Okra: This vegetable is used in dishes like Okra Soup, providing vitamins and minerals along with its unique slimy texture that thickens the soup.

5. Minerals

Minerals are vital for maintaining various bodily functions, including bone health, fluid balance, and nerve function. Common minerals include calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium.

Mineral requirements differ, but consuming a variety of foods, including dairy products, nuts, seeds, and leafy greens, can help meet these needs.

Nigerian Food Rich in Minerals

  • Crayfish: A common ingredient in Nigerian soups, crayfish adds flavor and is a source of essential minerals like calcium and magnesium.
  • Stockfish: Dried and salted fish, like stockfish, is used in traditional Nigerian dishes, contributing to the diet’s mineral content.

6. Water

Water is often overlooked as a nutrient, but it’s essential for nearly every bodily function. It aids in digestion, nutrient absorption, temperature regulation, and waste elimination.

The general guideline is to drink about 8 cups (2 liters) of water per day. But individual needs vary based on factors like activity level, climate, and overall health.

7. Dietary Fiber

While not a nutrient in the traditional sense, dietary fiber is a crucial component of a healthy diet.

Found in plant-based foods, dietary fiber is the indigestible part of food that offers numerous health benefits. It can be categorized into two types: soluble and insoluble fiber.

Insoluble fiber adds bulk to stools, aiding in regular bowel movements and preventing constipation.

Soluble fiber, on the other hand, helps lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels by binding to cholesterol in the digestive tract.

The recommended daily intake of fiber is about 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. However, most people fall short of meeting these targets. To increase your fiber intake, consume whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Nigerian Food Rich in Fiber

Dietary fiber is found in various Nigerian foods.


  • Oats: Oatmeal is gaining popularity in Nigeria as a nutritious breakfast option rich in dietary fiber.
  • Beans: Legumes like beans and lentils are excellent sources of dietary fiber and are used in dishes like Ewa Agoyin (mashed beans) and Bean Soup.

For clarity, note that traditional classification typically includes six classes of food. However, dietary fiber is often considered a separate class, making it a seventh component.

This distinction is based on its unique role in the diet. It’s worth noting that this classification might vary slightly depending on the context and the source you’re referencing.

Wrapping Up

A balanced diet that incorporates these six/seven classes of food is essential for promoting optimal health and well-being.

You should take note of the benefits and requirements of each class to help you make informed dietary choices that support your body’s needs.

Remember that variety is key—aim to consume a wide range of nutrient-rich foods to ensure you’re getting all the essential nutrients your body requires.